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Grainger is a leading broad line distributor with operations primarily in North America, Japan and the United Kingdom We achieve our purpose, We Keep the World Working , by serving more than 4. Grainger also delivers services and solutions, such as technical support and inventory management, to save customers time and money.

We’re looking for passionate people who can move our company forward. As one of the Best Companies to Work For, we have a welcoming workplace where you can build a career for yourself while fulfilling our purpose to keep the world working. We embrace new ways of thinking and recognize everyone is an individual.

Find your way with Grainger today. The Senior Administrative Assistant supports multiple District Sales Managers, across several regions and states, providing a wide range of administrative support to the team. You will implement department and operational processes to help meet goals.

You will report to a District Sales Manager. You will: Respond to requests by ask probing questions, gathering and providing information. Compose, modify, and proofread correspondence, reports, or presentations Schedule meetings, conference rooms and make travel arrangements.

Oversee calendar, and prepare materials needed by manager for meetings. Maintain office supply inventory and place orders. Prepare personnel, purchasing and other administrative forms for the office and forward for approval and processing. Manage sales presentation library and assist sales team with PowerPoint presentations. Help onboard new sales team members. You Have: High School diploma or equivalent 3 or more years of administrative experience. Experience communicating essential information concisely, both in writing and verbally.

The ability to proofread documents for correct grammar, spelling and punctuation. A knack for learning multiple software programs. Salesforce automation tools experience is helpful.

Rewards and Benefits: With benefits starting day one, Grainger is committed to your safety, health and wellbeing. Our programs provide choice and flexibility to meet our team members’ individual needs.

We are proud to be an equal opportunity workplace. Texas Association of School Boards. Our Story We come from humble beginnings — picture a one-person organization created in to advocate for excellence in public education on behalf of Texas school board members. Flash forward to today, and we have over employees working together to provide 1, school districts with purposeful resources so they can focus on what matters most — excellent and equitable education for all 5.

We combine a strong sense of tradition with innovation, and our mission — educational excellence for all Texas schoolchildren through advocacy, visionary leadership, and high-quality services to school districts — has played out in transformative ways. Why Texas Association of School Boards TASB As TASBeans our internal name for employees , we feel privileged to work alongside talented team-members who are passionate about education and enjoy learning from new and different perspectives. We believe what makes our organization highly successful is the rich diversity our employees collectively bring to TASB with different backgrounds, skillsets, cultures and ethnicities, gender identities, interests, abilities, and work styles.

Our culture has always encouraged employees to grow and become their best selves both professionally and personally through a variety of innovative and collaborative development opportunities. Every role at TASB thoughtfully complements our mission and the educational impact being made in communities across Texas.

If you consider your work exceptional and want to help drive our mission forward, keep reading! About You The program coordinator will provide administrative support, project coordination, data maintenance, and reporting support to the Communications, Marketing, and Events CME service area.

Ensures pertinent correspondence, agendas, presentation materials, and logistics are managed in a timely manner. Monitors the various inboxes for CME and addresses requests and questions. Coordinates planning and timelines for special projects, events, and reports. Operates the division switchboard, responding to and redirecting inquiries, including triaging calls from the media.

Provides support to the leadership team of CME. Gathers and prepares board committee agenda items and attends meetings as requested to take notes. Schedules and coordinates division and department meetings and special events. Composes professional correspondence and business documents. Exchanges routine information with other divisions and with outside organizations, frequently at the upper management level.

Prepares recurring reports, which may require research, data collection, and routine analysis. Creates, maintains, and populates databases. Serves as a lead on managing records retention and the governance of online content. Assists in maintaining web content for assigned areas. Places orders for supplies when needed, ensuring budget compliance.

Be part of a collaborative environment where every contribution impacts Texas public schoolchildren. Thrive in a culture that promotes bringing your whole self to work every day and emphasizes healthy boundaries and work-life balance. Learn and grow individually and together through frequent professional development; diversity, equity, and inclusion panels; wellness seminars; and more.

Work alongside transparent leaders with an open and consistent feedback approach. Celebrate as a team with meaningful and fun events and tokens of appreciation throughout the year. Posting Notices TASB is an equal opportunity employer and will not discriminate on the basis of an individual’s race, color, disability, religion, gender, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, national origin, genetics, age, marital status, veteran status, or any other personal characteristic protected by law.

This position does not qualify for visa sponsorship. Any job offer is contingent upon receipt of results of a satisfactory background check. Starry Associates. Initially, the position will be required to be on-site for 5 days per week. After successful training, the position will have the option to work remote 1 or possibly 2 days per week based on successful performance. This position will provide high-level, high quality administrative support services to the U.

The duties include coordinating meetings, preparing PowerPoint presentations; reviewing and proofreading documents and presentations; assisting with organizing goals and objectives, and priorities; and coordinating teamwork among with the federal government staff and contractor staff.

The individual shall attend meetings at multiple levels, take notes, and translate the notes into minutes. Identify action items from meetings and work with the managers to assign and track the actions items. This will include administration, coordination, and project management duties, all requiring self-direction with frequent interaction with executive-level associates within HHS.

This role operates in a dynamic, results-driven, fast-paced environment with regular exposure to confidential data and situations requiring discretion, tact, diplomacy and good judgment.

Qualifications: The candidate must have the following. A minimum of 10 years of experience providing services to those described above preferably in a Federal Government environment.

Excellent organization skills. Exhibit the ability to quickly learn how to use new software products. Experience with ServiceNow , or SalesForce , or both desired. Clearance: In order to obtain required security clearance, candidate must be a US citizen or have resided in the U. Starry Associates is an equal opportunity employer and all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, gender identity and sexual orientation, national origin, disability status, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Perform administrative and budget related duties of a complex and confidential nature in support of departmental, division or other organization unit activities, which requires a thorough knowledge of Medical Center policies and procedures. May perform secretarial duties, manage calendars, and support faculty scholarly activity including presentation preparation and grant administrative support.

Coordinates monthly reporting to Graduate Medical Education. Miscellaneous items to include preparation and editing of power point presentations. Recently, selected to help revise GME program coordinator manual. Assist in updating CVs, biosketches, and other support pages Assist in support of faculty scholarly activity including PowerPoint presentations.

Breadth of Knowledge: Applies broad job knowledge and has basic job skills in other areas. Team Interaction: Provides informal guidance and support to less experienced team members. Minimum Requirements High School Diploma or GED or equivalent experience and 4 years relevant experience Preferred Qualification 24 months of relevant experience, strong work-ethic, with a proactive, positive disposition and excellent communication skills both oral and written.

View how Vanderbilt Health employees celebrate the difference they make every day: Discover Vanderbilt University Medical Center: Located in Nashville, Tennessee, and operating at a global crossroads of teaching, discovery and patient care, VUMC is a community of individuals who come to work each day with the simple aim of changing the world. It is a place where your expertise will be valued, your knowledge expanded and your abilities challenged.

It is a place where your diversity – of culture, thinking, learning and leading – is sought and celebrated. It is a place where employees know they are part of something that is bigger than themselves, take exceptional pride in their work and never settle for what was good enough yesterday.

Vanderbilt’s mission is to advance health and wellness through preeminent programs in patient care, education, and research. Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt named as one of the Best Children’s Hospital in the nation, with 10 out of 10 pediatric specialties nationally ranked.

Sedentary work involves sitting most of the time. To keep IT systems running, a large workforce is needed to maintain networks, create new software, and ensure information security. Unlike many other sectors of the economy, employment in the computer systems design and related services industry commonly known as IT services was not significantly affected by the recession of — The industry lost about 1 percent of its employment in but regained momentum in , when it surpassed the employment numbers from The high demand for the services provided by this industry has created a large number of fast-growing and high-paying IT jobs.

Generally, design firms also install new computer systems and train the users. Computer systems design firms also provide support services to clients when the installation and training is finished.

The two remaining subindustries are much smaller. Computer facilities management services includes establishments that manage and operate computer systems and data processing facilities. Other computer related services includes establishments that provide a wide range of services not included in the other subindustries, such as disaster recovery services or software installation services.

Computer and information research scientists invent and design new approaches to computing technology and find innovative uses for existing technology. They study and solve complex problems in computing for business, science, medicine, and other fields. Computer programming services. Computer and information research sci- well the robots do the tasks they were createntists create and improve computer algo- ed to do—such as assemble cars and collect rithms, which are sets of instructions that data on other planets.

Some comProgramming. Computer and informaputer tasks are very difficult and require tion research scientists design new procomplex algorithms. Computer and infor- gramming languages that are used to write mation research scientists try to simplify software.

The new languages make softthese algorithms to make computer systems ware writing more efficient by improving as efficient as possible. These algorithms an existing language, such as Java, or by allow advancements in many types of tech- making a specific aspect of programming, nology, such as machine learning systems such as image processing, easier.

Employment of computer and informaThe work of computer and information tion research scientists is projected to grow research scientists often leads to technolog- 15 percent from to , faster than ical advancements and efficiencies, such as the average for all occupations.

Computer better networking technology, faster com- scientists are tasked with advancing all puting speeds, and improved information fields of computing.

As demand for new security. In general, and better technolcomputer and inforogy grows, demand mation research for computer scienscientists work on tists will grow as a more theoretical well. Computer science background scientists will be become postsecondneeded to write algorithms that help ary teachers. In genbusinesses sort, eral, researchers in manage, and display an academic setting very large amounts focus on computof data.

A growing er theory, although emphasis on cyberthose working for security also should businesses or scienlead to new jobs, tific organizations because computer usually focus on scientists will be projects that may needed to find innoproduce profits. The follow- in robotics, as more advanced robots are ing are examples of types of specialties for developed. Robots are already widely used computer and information research scien- in manufacturing, and their use is expected tists: to expand in distribution centers and within Data mining.

Computer and information the military. In large datasets. They improve ways to sort, addition, an increase in software demand manage, and display data.

Computer scien- may increase the need for computer scientists build algorithms into software packag- tists who create new programming languages that make the data easier for analysts to es to make software writing more efficient. For example, they may create an algo- Job Prospects rithm to analyze a very large set of medical Computer and information research sciendata in order to find new ways to treat tists are likely to enjoy excellent job prosdiseases.

They may also look for patterns pects. There are a limited number of Ph. As a result, many Robotics. Some computer and infor- companies report difficulties finding these mation research scientists study how to highly skilled workers. Robotics explores how For applicants seeking employment in a a machine can interact with the physical specialized field, such as finance or biolworld.

Computer and information research ogy, knowledge of that field, along with a scientists create the programs that control computer science degree, may be helpful in the robots. They work closely with engi- getting a job. Together, these workers test how. Computer and information research scientists write algorithms that are used to detect and analyze patterns in very large datasets. Diversity maximizes our true potential for creativity, innovation, quality patient care, educational excellence and outstanding service.

Individuals with diverse backgrounds and those who promote diversity and a culture of inclusion are encouraged to apply. The knowledge of all for the care of one. Please explore our career opportunities at www. You can bet whoever reads it will be just as bored.

Some candidates even make the mistake of skipping the cover letter completely and just sending a resume. By forgoing the cover letter or settling for a boring regurgitation of the information already on your resume, you miss out on a big opportunity! Your cover letter is a chance to personalize your pitch to a potential employer. A skillful cover letter gets the recipient genuinely excited to turn the page and look at your resume.

If the gatekeeper reading your letter likes it, he or she scans your resume looking for reasons to keep you in the hiring pool, not screen you out. So how do you write that letter, individualize it for the companies you target, and grab their attention? Follow these six steps:. It is a place where you can learn, innovate and grow professionally. If the company has a blog or an employee newsletter that is accessible to the public, read at least a few entries.

What are you looking for? You want to learn what the company does, so you can envision yourself working there, and figure out what you can contribute. In writing the first paragraph of your letter, talk about what you know about the company.

Do they have a product that you have used and love? Have they completed a project that inspires you? Does the com1. Learn about the company. Look at what they do, see them merely as a potential paycheck,. To us, diversity means more than ethnicity. It means developing, manufacturing and marketing life-enhancing medical technologies in several therapeutic fields. It means cultivating a workforce that spans a variety of cultures around the globe.

And it means fostering the careers of talented individuals, whatever their background or avenue of interest. State that you will follow up with a phone call or email, if the job listing specifies no phone calls in the next week to make sure your information was received and to answer any questions, or they can contact you at email or phone number. Then thank them for considering you.

The body of the letter is where you talk about yourself and your accomplishments. Think about 6. Proofread and revise.

No matter how things that you think would make you an asset to the company. Then wonderful your words, any typos, grammar mistakes, and misspellings describe that. Take advantage of pull your weight in a crisis situation. What experiences do you have that spellcheck and other proofreading tools. If possible, have another person, you can frame as assets to this potential employer? Describe how you will fit with go over your letter before you send it off.

Make sure that you do not thing about the company culture, whether it emphasizes creativity, reli- leave behind any references to another company, or sentences that you ability, teamwork, individual achievement or other aspects. Do they customize to fit a different application.

This happens all too frequently have employee volunteer programs with local charities and fundraisers? Do they emphasize work-life balance? Highlight the Rather than sending your resume everywhere, target the places you things that appeal to you and mention how your outlook or values mesh most want to work, and spend the time to craft a carefully composed and with theirs. Give whoever reads your letter 5. Finish with a call to action.

Your cover letter is a sales letter for yourself, and fit. The next step toward hiring you would be to make personal Article provided by ConstantContent. Surveys of U.

In fact, up to 75 percent of workers are still searching for a job they love, according to the job search Web site Career Builder. Perhaps you already know what your dream career is and are in the process of choosing whether or not to take the leap.

However, and more likely, a large part of the problem may be that you have yet to discover what your dream career should be. How much money do your skills and talents should be a part of your you want to make? You must answer this question to accurately find your dream job. Do you value helping others over all else? Or do you value having time to spend with your family?

How about money? Where does that fit in to your value system? Chances are that your values will encompass a number of different things. Or do want a flexible schedule that allows you more time to spend with the kids? This free career test will help you determine what type of career you are best suited for based on your dominant character traits, your interests, and the way you approach work.

Keep your career personality in mind as you compose your list of dream careers. Now, write it all down. Based on your dream, identify careers that you believe would make you truly happy. Search online, ask your family, friends and neighbors, and choose your dream job. Now you just have to find it. Keep your eyes and ears open for anything related to your dream job. Attend industry trade shows, read their magazines, network with anyone you can within note of it.

If your dream is to start your this in mind too. Make 5. Location, location, location. Stick With It! Meanwhile, how far ing for it. If you find that certain hurdles are are you willing to commute or do you want a keeping you from moving out of your old job job you can ride your bike too? Travel is also and into the new i. Remember, you are working toward a dream, 6. Workaholic or Family-Oriented?

We think our plus employees are pretty spectacular! Each day they bring their core values to work to make things happen. For more information view:. The original book by Danny Wallace, however, provided a much more compelling and realistic argument. But I digress. The secret of creative thinking is let ideas live long enough to make them better.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming NLP is the study of how people communicate, think and change behavior at both the conscious and subconscious levels.

For this reason, it is used in sales training as well as by some psychotherapists and life coaches. If this sounds obvious, I should add that when I am taking participants through the Sales Telepathy workshop, I get a lot of eyebrows raised when I focus as much as I do on the first step of the process: identifying all the things you genuinely believe the prospect is doing right! After all, salespeople and marketers know that the value they add is directly related to the gaps and challenges that their prospects — so why focus on what they are doing right?

Because it demonstrates you honor and respect your prospect, and it improves the likelihood that they will honor and respect what you have to offer. In my years as an Account Executive in advertising agencies, I credit the. Wine is a blend of vision, character, and style. So is a great place to work. Valuing the differences of employees, suppliers, and consumers has made us a leader in the wine industry. Gallo CEO. This does not suggest you should And Conflict Resolution.

And maybe you do. No one has to see your score but yourself. Try it for one day. Go on, I dare you. Sc, Certified NLP Practitioner, helps his clients discover, communicate and focus on their greatest value and true competitive advantage — for massive increases in sales, leadership effectiveness and happiness!

Headquartered in Charleston, South Carolina, Hagemeyer North America is a distributor of products and services focusing on business-to-business markets in electrical materials, safety products, and industrial products. Hagemeyer North America offers exciting career opportunities for outgoing, ambitious, and energetic associates. If you are ready to build an exciting career with a global organization that is a leader in our industry, then you will want to join our team.

For more information visit us online at: www. We stand in support of equality for and advancement of all people based on their qualifications and actions alone without regard to color, race and ethnicity, gender, age, religion, national origin or disability. Spend a less productive than your colleagues, you could be the few minutes looking through old business first one on the unemployment when times get tough at cards or viewing old email threads to find the office.

When you really need a break and you Make a list. In some cases, making the window is one way to get away—but that list will help you figure out that you have less down an even better one is to actually get out of time than you thought.

In other cases, it will help you the office. Make a list of the tasks you Even more ideal: get outside and go for have yet to complete for the day, write down your goals a brisk walk. The fresh air will help clear for the coming months, or perhaps even make a list of the your mind, while the small amount of lists you need to finish making.

A cluttered office can equal a cluttered mind. When you have a few minutes, tidy up your own personal work space—and then extend that task to organizing the wider work space if you still have more time. Looking back on past projects can help you get insight into what you did well and what you could have done better.

When you have a few extra moments, look back on work you did a few weeks or months ago. You may be. Article provided by ConstantContent.

Our company offers a competitive benefits package and many development opportunities for our teammates, including an on-site college program, leadership training and technical training. To view current openings or to apply online visit www.

Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, L. Agricultural Division N. To support our retail locations, we operate our own central bakery, dry cleaning facility and grocery distribution center. Visit us online today to apply. See our career opportunities at www. These questions and their answers help the counselor get a perspective on how to direct you towards the correct career path. Be open and honest, about not only your drive and ambition, but also your fears as well. The career counselor may help dispel certain fears, but he or she may also direct you away from a profession that may only add to your apprehension.

Some tain areas? In this case, you products, solutions and services for manufacturers. We stand in support of equality for and advancement of all people based on their qualifications and actions alone without regard to color, gender, age, religion, national origin or disability. Headquartered in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, we have offices throughout the United States, employing more than 1, 1, office employees and 6, 4, company drivers and working with more than 3, independent contractors.

If you are interested in making a valuable contribution to a dynamic company with plans for a bright future, apply now. Learn more about us and our employment opportunities at www. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability or protected veteran status.

As an equal opportunity employer, we are committed to diversity recruitment and talent development, especially for returning veterans.

We have generation and transmission facilities around the state, with administrative offices in White Plains. For a current list of job openings, visit: www. If you love computers, becoming an IT tech or graphics artist may excite you. If you like numbers, accounting and bookkeeping may be a wise choice.

Even favorite activities, like boating, could lead to a career in the Coast Guard. Sometimes you just need a little guidance to help narrow down the focus of what type of livelihood would best suit your desires.

Meet with a career counselor to help choose a profession that will feel rewarding. Article provided by the ConstantContent. If you hit on someone who needs what you have, bingo! The fact is that while most people see the value of networking events—and continue to go in massive numbers—few people know how to use networking events effectively.

But I bet you still make at least one of the mistakes I talk about in this article, and maybe all three. Read on and rate yourself! You must have seen this a hundred times: you go to a lunch or dinner networking event, and as people sit down at your table, they pass their business cards around as if they were dealing a deck of playing cards. Admit it. Even worse, people perceive you as being only interested in pushing your product or service on them.

No thanks. Let me tell you a bit about what I do first. At a networking event that I was facilitating, I asked everyone to raise their hand if they were there with the intention of selling a product or service, or looking for a job. Almost everyone raised their hand. Then I asked them to raise their hand if they came looking for a supplier or vendor. One woman raised her hand. If everyone goes to a networking event only to sell, nobody sells anything. But, if everyone goes to a networking event open to what other people can offer, then everyone has the opportunity to sell.

At another networking event, after most people had streamed out I was talking to one of the organizers of the event. One of the other participants — who was obviously in a rush to leave — brushed past me, shook hands with the person I was talking to and said goodbye to him.

He then looked at me, shoved his business card in my face, and then continued out the door. Now contrast that to another experience I had last week.

There are a lot of different ways to build your business — the best way is to be genuinely interested in what other people offer. It constantly amazes me when I hear people introduce themselves the same way over and over again. No, no, no, no and no. Think of a networking event as a giant focus group that you could use to figure out what resonates most with people about your business and what the true core value is you offer.

As you work the room, try emphasizing different aspects of your business. Ask a lot of questions about the kind of service the person you are speaking to would like to receive. And most importantly, pay special attention to the reactions you get.

If you truly listen, you might be surprised by what people find most interesting about your business. Michel empowers his audiences to dig deeper than the usual marketing messages to access a well of meaning and purpose that drive sales as much as they drive productivity, engagement, resilience and collaboration. Sterling Jewelers has immediate opportunities available in retail locations across the US and a our corporate office located in Akron, OH.

For a complete list of employment opportunities, visit our website at sterlingcareers. At Sterling Jewelers, diversity is the synergy of many different people working toward One Mission. Sterling values the differences between people and fosters an environment of opportunity and acceptance throughout the organization. Sterling is an equal opportunity employer committed to promoting diversity among all levels of Team Members.

Our diversity inspires innovation and is the secret to our success. At Sterling, we are more than just the sum of our parts — Together, we can achieve great success. Although the name of the game is still customer engagement, the manner in which this engagement takes place has completed shifted. The advancement of communications technology such as smartphones and tablets, in conjunction with the expanse and reach of the web, has produced the perfect storm for effective customer engagement.

This means that small businesses will be able effectively establish their brand while building consistent and relevant exposure to their customer base and target audience. It is hard to believe, but there are still some holdouts among small business owners. Change is not always easily embraced. Unfortunately, for those business owners who have not yet engaged the multitudinous opportunities presented by social media, they will be playing catchup in a highly competitive economy.

Depending on how well you adapt and how effective you are, you could even secure a competitive edge by mastering the social media tango. As a small business owner, it is imperative that you engage your customers on consistent level — providing relevant and meaningful content. Customer engagement is the only way to build a trusting relationship with your customer base. It is this relationship of trust that helps to develop customer loyalty and that is what sustains businesses during those lean times.

Unlike some other engagement tools, such as opt-in lists, your customer base is already on social media and highly active. This is huge for a business that is online time visiting social media sites. This attempting to connect with their target is huge for businesses that are attempting audience. What make this even more beneficial to connect with a target audience. People on social media platforms have been condiLevels the Playing Field in a Competitive Market The volatility that has been experienced in the global economy as trick- tioned to respond and they are rarely annoyed by being engaged.

These led down and impacted local economies as well. The volatility has created platforms make it easy to engage your customers without being overly a shift in business models in which more small businesses are emerging as invasive. You control the content and the frequency in which you connect companies downsize. This is good news for those entrepreneurial minded with your audience. It is important that you understand that this is not the platform for you individuals, but business dictates that competition drives the market in a thriving economy.

Social media has the capacity to level the playing to bombard your followers or fans with promotional offers. This is one. We are a quality manufacturer of tube assemblies and components for the Aerospace Industry, the Military and other high precision industries.

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To learn more about us visit:. The unique qualities of each individual bring us a broader perspective, enhanced innovation, and greater success. Established as an industry leader for more than eight decades, we have professionals from every walk of life, providing the wide array of attributes essential to the superior research, technology, resources, experience, safety, and performance our clients expect.

In addition to a culture conducive to learning, growth, and advancement, we offer excellent compensation and benefits. This was a response to increased fiscal pressures, but it was also a response to the shift in the political climate that emphasized market mechanisms rather than command-and-control regulations as the most efficient way of dealing with social issues. Many of the labor laws passed during the postwar period of high government intervention in the economy thus has the unintended consequence of indirectly encouraging subcontracting and leasing of employees and other nonstandard work arrangements; employers sought to avoid the rigidities associated with the standard employment relations that were protected by these legislative requirements Cappelli et al.

Technological Changes The institutional changes in markets described above were facilitated by technological changes such as advances in information technology. For example, the spread of computers and microprocessors made possible internationalization of production and greater productivities in manufacturing, which required fewer manufacturing workers especially in the United States.

Technological advances such as computerization also shaped the organization of work, making it easier to monitor and coordinate workers without using managers. This facilitated both downsizing and outsourcing, and made it more feasible to substitute machines for labor and to implement new systems of management and control Cappelli, 5; Osterman, See Table 2. From the mids to the mids, employment among the largest service companies grew from 9.

The trend toward service employment was fueled in part by the other macro- structural changes discussed above. The growth of foreign competition, for example, helped to reduce the size of the U. Technological changes have also enhanced the efficiency with which goods are manufactured, thereby reducing the number of jobs required to make these goods. Moreover, the spread of the 3 A future revision of this chapter will provide more detailed information on these changes in work structures, using a variety of sources.

The effects of these macro-structural forces on job quality, however, do not directly impact on jobs, but operate through their effects on the actions of employers and workers. Another possible centerpiece for this analysis is the decline of unions during this period. Layoffs became increasingly common and blue-collar occupations bore the brunt of the downsizing in the early s.

In the latter part of the s and in the s, however, these layoffs were extended to managerial and white collar workforces, which was a departure from past practice. Another big change from the past was that layoffs occurred for reasons of profit-maximization rather than survival: healthy companies laid off workers and this was justified on the basis of changing norms of the employment relationship Osterman, During this period, U. The use of high involvement work organizations was a strategy that appeared to be particularly useful in high-value added manufacturing operations, where it made sense to invest in human resources as opposed to cutting labor costs.

Human resource policies that emphasized the internalization of labor were now seen as problematic due to the increased rapidity of change in markets and technology, which made it important to alter production levels and to change skills more quickly. Some organizations sought to increase both functional and numerical flexibility simultaneously.

Such organizations have sought to protect a core of highly skilled workers, while they outsource and use temporary workers for more peripheral activities. A substantial portion of large work organizations in the U. Gordon argues that most U. The organizational restructuring described in this section is reflected in the decline in the average size of workplaces, or establishments, in the United States since the s. Table 2. Occupations Changes in the occupational structure are generated by the macro-structural forces as well as organizational restructuring discussed above.

There has been a growth in professional and technical occupations during the past thirty years especially among women. This change is due in part to technological changes, as the use of increasingly sophisticated equipment has required more technical and professional workers. It is also due to increases in skills in many occupations and the growing complexity of work generally.

Technical occupations grew also due to the expansion of professional work such as paralegals that assist lawyers and various categories of nurses. The impact of organizational restructuring on the proportion of managerial occupations has been the subject of debate. Such strategies to get workers to work harder need more managers and supervisors to coerce workers who are receiving lower wages.

When broken down by gender, however, we see that the proportion of managers who are men has declined, while the proportion of women managers has increased. An alternative way of assessing change in supervisory intensity is to examine changes in the proportion of U. This decline was particularly notable among men; the proportion of women who say they supervise others remained constant at about one-third of the labor force.

Among women, however, the proportion of other white collar workers declined, reflecting in large part the movement of women out of clerical occupations into professional and technical occupations, as well as managerial occupations. Finally, the proportion of workers who are blue collar declined since the late s. This group includes the categories of skilled, semiskilled and unskilled blue collar workers, along with service workers and farmers.

Decline of Unions The postwar capital-labor accord began to unravel in the late s. This decline continues a trend of decreasing proportions of labor force members belonging to unions that began in the s. This more direct measure of actual union power declined from to Osterman, The decline of union membership and union power in the United States was a symptom of the breakdown of the postwar institutional labor market structure, not a cause.

These changes have contributed to a post-union bargaining environment where unions have had little place and structural ability to gain a foothold for bargaining with employers. If all is well for labor force participants, then there is much less urgency in understanding the nature of the institutional changes over the past two decades and what might be done about them.

These changes resulted in large part from the harsh realities of increased price competition, and from the erosion of the social contract by which employees traded their effort and loyalty to their employers in return for stable, long-term employment relationships.

Organizational Structures Organizational restructuring has had positive and negative effects on job quality. Workers in these restructured organizations should thus be able to exercise more control over their jobs in part because there are fewer supervisors and receive higher wages. These jobs are also relatively secure. Chronic understaffing may have led to an increase in work intensity, as workers need to work harder and longer hours to pick up the slack created by those laid off.

Moreover, the rise in nonstandard work arrangements, particularly in temporary work and subcontracting, has led to a general increase in insecurity for all workers. The nature of careers may also have changed due to organizational restructuring. Pressures to restructure have fundamentally altered the employment relationship in the sense that it has made it more market-mediated, as market solutions have been substituted for administrative rules and the labor market has been brought inside the firm Cappelli, As a result, employees must take on greater responsibility to manage their own careers, and to assume the risks associated with them.

The hypothesized decline of firm internal labor markets and rise of contingent work arrangements in large establishments may also have resulted in fewer opportunities for internal advancement within the firm. These likely positive and negative consequences of organizational restructuring are consistent with the view that there has been a growing polarization, or inequality in the labor force. This division was reflected in labor law … The restructuring of the workplace has made a mockery of that division.

The hypothesis of skill-biased technological change, for example, suggests that there has been an upgrading of the skill levels associated with some occupations such as professional and technical workers. They are also relatively highly skilled, which helps to enhance their promotion opportunities and gives them greater security in the labor market. This has led to an increase in the wage advantages enjoyed by college graduates compared to less educated persons in recent years Autor, Levy, and Murnane, forthcoming.

Evidence for increasing inequality between high- and low-skilled occupations is provided by Farber He considers three dimensions of job quality: real wages, the rate of part-time employment, and the rate of coverage by employer-provided health insurance. His analysis finds that there has been a decline in job quality for low-skill workers mainly due to decline in employer-provided health insurance , but there has been little change in the quality of jobs for more high-skilled workers.

An alternative view suggests that inequality is not rising at all, but that white- collar and blue-collar occupations are converging in terms of job quality. While previously, we might have equated bad jobs with blue-collar jobs, the growth of contingent work such as temporary, part-time, contracting work has blurred the distinction between blue-collar and white-collar occupations: we now find contingent jobs in professional occupations university academics, for example and temporary workers are found in both white collar and blue collar jobs.

Moreover, organizational restructuring has led in part to an increase in workloads for formerly privileged white collar workers; some writers e.

Industry Structure Changes in industry structure have been hypothesized to affect job quality; in particular, the growth of the service sector has been linked to hypotheses about the increase in bad jobs. The McJobs scenario, for example, posits that service sector jobs are low wage, insecure jobs such as those in the fast food industry and these are the kinds of jobs that have been increasingly created in the U.

Service sector jobs are also thought to be more likely to be part-time. The assumption is that these jobs have replaced higher paying manufacturing jobs, which are more likely to be unionized and higher skilled Bluestone and Harrison, ; Harrison and Bluestone, Many service sector jobs pay less than manufacturing jobs.

However, it is not clear that all service jobs are bad, nor are they worse than manufacturing jobs. Moreover, he argues that even within service industries, there is considerable diversity in job quality, and some service jobs are similar to those in manufacturing industries. What is probably the case, though, is that the service sector jobs that pay well require at least a college education; this contrasts with the relatively low-skilled, yet high-paying, manufacturing jobs that were available during the postwar period Rubin, Unions The decline in worker power, represented most vividly in the decline of unions in the United States, especially in the private sector, is arguably an important reason why job quality may have declined in recent years, at least for large segments of the labor force.

Unions are likely to be less able to preserve job security for their members, and to provide them with increasing levels of earnings and fringe benefits such as health insurance.

We would expect, then, that the union-nonunion differential in economic rewards to have declined over time. Job rewards are distributed unequally not only on the basis of occupation or industry, but also differ for men and women, and members of different races.

Much research has shown that inequalities outside of the formal labor market contribute to differences in job rewards and job satisfaction. The composition of the labor force in the United States has grown increasingly diverse during the past thirty years. The labor force participation of women has grown steadily during the past quarter century, as has the proportion of non-whites and immigrants.

There have also been changes in who does not work for pay, not only the formally unemployed, but discouraged workers, early retirees, and so on. By contrast, labor force participation rates of men have decreased during this period; Mishel, Bernstein and Boushey, There are a number of reasons for this increase in women workers, including: the growth in families headed by women, which is due in part to greater divorce rates; the decline in the birth rate; increasing educational attainment of women; the availability of jobs in the service sector and in white collar occupations; and the stagnation of wages for men, which made it difficult for one wage earner to support a family.

The number of children living at home decreased during this period for male labor force members from 1. Part-time jobs are more likely to have these characteristics, 5 A future revision of this chapter will provide more detailed information on these trends in labor force composition, using a variety of sources.

It is well known that men generally have better quality jobs than women, as reflected, for example, in the persistent wage gap in earnings.

It is also generally assumed that men have jobs in which they have greater opportunities for promotion and greater autonomy and control over their jobs.

This has led to women being more likely to demand jobs that pay well, provide opportunities for meaningful work, and lead to other, better jobs. These trends raise a number of important questions related to gender differences in job quality. How do these changes affect patterns of inequality in job quality for men and women? Are these changes, if any, due to women doing better, or men doing worse? Race and Ethnic Diversity The increase in women in the labor force is associated with a more general trend toward labor force diversity: the proportion of native white men in the labor force has declined.

In , there are few differences in labor force participation rates for blacks The overall participation rates for blacks have grown from Department of Labor, The increase in racial and ethnic diversity in the labor force reflects in part the growth of immigrants in the labor force.

This, in turn, results from the expansion of globalization and internationalization of production; labor mobility has accompanied capital mobility. We might hypothesize that the growth in racial and ethnic diversity is related to an increase in inequality in job rewards. It is generally assumed, for example, that some blacks and Hispanics are often less skilled than whites and have created a large available labor supply of people who have few skills and who are willing to work in low-wage jobs.

At the same time, the expectations of these relatively low-skilled workers may be correspondingly low, and so they may well be relatively satisfied with the jobs that they are able to obtain. Education The educational level of the U. By contrast, the percentages of men and women with less than a high school diploma decreased from 36 and 27 percent in to 9 and 7 percent in , respectively.

More educated persons are generally more likely to have good jobs. Changing Work Values? There is relatively little evidence on how workers in the United States have changed in their evaluations of what is important with regard to their jobs. Nevertheless, we might speculate about two scenarios. This suggests that workers might place greater importance on earnings and less emphasis on job security and promotion with the firm.

If this is the case, then workers may not be any less satisfied with their jobs over time, since their values are adjusting to the changes in job rewards and what is available from work. They may feel that their high levels of education have entitled them to receive good jobs with high earnings and opportunities for control over their work.

Failing to obtain them, these workers may be increasingly dissatisfied with their jobs. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. Murnane eds. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Autor, David H. Blair, Margaret and Thomas Kochan editors. Washington, D. Bluestone, Barry and Bennett Harrison. The Deindustrialization of America. New York: Basic Books. Bowles, Samuel and Herb Gintis. Cappelli, Peter. Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press. Ellwood, David T. Niskanen, and Karen Lynn-Dyson. Fligstein, Neil and Taek-Jin Shin. Fortin, N. Gordon, David M. Harrison, Bennett. Working Women in America: Split Dreams. Kochan, Thomas A.

Katz, and Robert B. The Transformation of American Industrial Relations. Kuttner, Robert. Everything for Sale. New York: Knopf. Osterman, Paul. New York: Oxford. Rubin, Beth A. Samples are restricted to workers who are 18 years and older, who work at least 20 hours per week.

Samples are restricted to persons 18 years and older, who work at least 20 hours a week. These hypotheses refer to changes in work structures and job quality for different groups of people. In this chapter, I first summarize the conceptual model that will guide the analysis of job quality in this book, and discuss some of the theoretical and methodological issues raised by this model.

I then suggest some of the needed empirical studies of the relationships among the concepts implied by this model and present some of the data that have been used to examine these hypotheses. This model makes several assumptions about which concepts are important to study, and about the interrelations among them. There is thus not an automatic, direct relationship, between the kinds of rewards that one receives from the job such as earnings or control over work and how satisfied he or she will be with the job.

Second, the model includes concepts that are defined at multiple levels of analysis. Changes in macroscopic factors such as work structures and demographic characteristics help to explain changes in job quality. Macroscopic and mezzoscopic concepts such as work structures are assumed to be causally prior to more microscopic job characteristics such as job rewards. As discussed in the previous chapter, these work structures include organizational characteristics such as employment size , occupations, industries and unions.

Some of the hypothesized reasons for how and why changes in these work structures may have led to variations in job quality were also discussed in the last chapter. Third, the kinds of jobs that people choose and for which they are selected by employers depend largely on their demographic features such as their gender, race, age, and education. The previous chapter discussed briefly these characteristics of individuals, and suggested ways in which job quality differs among these various groups.

Chapter 3: p. Ascribed attributes, such as gender or race, represent proxies for whole sets of characteristics such as socialization, opportunities, discrimination, etc. Demographic features of workers also influence their work values, or what they deem to be most important about their jobs. The conceptual model represented by Figure 3. It is not a theory. Indeed, the interrelations among concepts in the model are consistent with a variety of theoretical mechanisms, some of which may be competing with each other.

In principle, then, there are an extremely large number of things that people might consider to be job rewards. Both economic and non-economic aspects of jobs are important for studying job quality.

There is less agreement on the salience of non-economic features. Yet, trends indicate changes have occurred over time that affect nonwage attributes of jobs … Wages may be the most important concern in the good jobs-bad jobs debate, but they should not be the only concern in this very important issue.

I also examine two additional benefits that are intimately related to the nature of the employment relationship: the degree of job security; and opportunities for advancement. Security and opportunities for advancement constitute job rewards in their own right. They also represent two dimensions of time that are indicators of the degree to which people feel that they can count on continuing to receive valued non-economic and economic rewards, and the extent to which they perceive that they have opportunities to obtain greater amounts of these non-economic and economic rewards in the future.

These four types of job rewards have also been emphasized by other writers. Chris Tilly also identified wages, fringe benefits, flexibility in hours worked, permanence, mobility, and control over the work process as key indicators of job quality.

These four job rewards do not, however, exhaust all aspects of jobs that might be important for job quality. For example, Tilly also added due process or protection from arbitrary disciplinary action, particularly firing as an additional indicator of job quality. Hunter also emphasized the importance of having training on the job.

Meisenheimer II stressed the central role played by occupational safety in determining job quality, in addition to wages, benefits, and job security. Farber measures job quality by the rate of part-time employment, in addition to real wages and rate of coverage by employer-provided health insurance.

Gittelman and Howell based their classification of clusters of jobs differing in quality on working conditions, employment status unemployment, involuntary part-time employment and institutional setting public sector employment, union coverage , in addition to earnings, benefits and skill requirements.

Restricting my focus on job quality to these four basic rewards, then, does not mean that the others are unimportant. However, many of these other aspects of job quality are very difficult to study empirically because they are so highly dependent on individual differences.

For example, whether a commute is easy or hard depends on where you live. Many of these benefits, such as a good commute or good co-workers, are also highly specific to a particular workplace, and thus it is difficult to obtain measures of these potential benefits for the labor force as a whole or to study changes over time.

Indeed, some authors equate job quality with job satisfaction explicitly, arguing that the use of this global concept enables the assessment of overall job quality without identifying and measuring all the kinds of job rewards and benefits that the job provides. Wright and Dwyer p. Some of these attributes can be measured with readily available data—such as earnings, fringe benefits, educational levels of incumbents of jobs; others are in principle measurable, but data are not readily available—such as opportunities for advancement, job security, and level of authority; and some involve job attributes that are difficult even in principle to measure—such as stress levels, degree of personal autonomy within the labor process, or opportunities for social connectedness on the job.

Similarly, we can agree on whether a person obtains health insurance. For example, job security can be conceptualized objectively as the probability that someone may lose her job in a specified period of time, while opportunities for advancement can be also in principle calculated probabilistically.

However, whether a job is secure or leads to other jobs is generally not known in an objective sense at a given period of time. Rather, the degree of job security is often inferred in retrospect from separation or displacement rates, or lengths of job tenure, for example and opportunities for advancement are often measured as the probability that a person will be promoted within a given time period.

Moreover, the degree of control that people have over their jobs can probably be measured objectively, though impartial observers may well disagree as to the extent to which a person can exercise discretion over the work task.

At the other end of the spectrum are job rewards that are highly subjective. For example, intrinsic rewards such as the degree of meaning, challenge and interest that people obtain from their jobs are likely to vary considerably from one person to the next. Even intrinsic rewards, for example, are rooted in objective features of jobs task structure, complexity of the task, length of training time that can be verified by neutral observers.

Regardless of the amount of feedback or variety, autonomy, or task identity a worker really has in his work, it is how much he perceives that he has which affects his reactions to the job. David Houser of Houser Associates first took a quantitative approach to studying worker attitudes and demonstrating their utility to employers. After a period of tapering off in the s, the proportion of manufacturing firms conducting employee attitude surveys increased in the late s and early s, as American industry became increasingly reliant on behavioral science tools to solve workplace problems.

Thus, we must consider a range of possible interpretations and data sources before drawing conclusions about how and why changes in job quality have occurred. Interrelations among Job Rewards In the next five chapters, I examine the various types of job rewards separately. Analyzing the aspects of job quality in isolation has a number of advantages, since they may be affected by different determinants, may change in diverse ways, and are often the subjects of different literatures.

Accordingly, one can differentiate between good jobs and poor jobs, with earnings as the most reliable indicator. One mechanism that might account for this is that all the job rewards are related systematically to job skill. High skill jobs are in high demand, which brings their incumbents higher earnings and greater security.

Workers with more skills tend to have more autonomy and control over their work, and due to their greater market power, perhaps over their schedule. Highly skilled workers are also likely to be more valuable to their employers, which enhances their job security. Since such highly skilled jobs require more extensive training, employers are more likely to set up job ladders to facilitate the acquisition of skills, which leads to career advancement over time within occupational internal labor markets if not firm internal labor markets.

Moreover, promotion opportunities with the employer and perceived job security should be positively correlated, since both are positive reflections of the power that the employee has with regard to the employer. Perhaps the most innovative way this has been done is a study by Jencks, Perman and Rainwater , who asked workers to rate the overall desirability of their own jobs as well as a variety of characteristics associated with these jobs.

They then assessed the average value of these job characteristics to workers by means of a regression analysis of the job quality index on the various job characteristics. Jencks et al. This is unfortunate, since the interrelations among these dimensions of job rewards may have loosened over time. In this optimistic framework, bad jobs were peripheral and to a large extent vestigial—in the process of being swept away by U.

Employers may have to pay workers more, for example, to get them to work in insecure conditions where there may not be much chance of advancement such as is the case in many consulting arrangements. Moreover, workers who have jobs that are intrinsically interesting or convenient in terms of flexibility may have to forgo some earnings in order to work in those jobs. That the dimensions of job quality may be less tightly related now than in the past is one reason why it is difficult to develop a single measure of overall job quality.

However, there are other reasons why it may not be possible to develop a single measure or index of job quality.



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